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The options here are varied depending on your skill level, with courses available in rock climbing and abseiling, or thousands of locations for the experienced climber.

There is also the option for one of the most iconic of all abseil locations — the Forth Rail Bridge.

Every year there are a number of charity abseils here, but places go fast. For the adrenaline-lover, the chance to free-fall descend the 50 metres feet to the beach below is not to be missed.

Bungee jumping with Highland Fling at Killiecrankie in Highland Perthshire is a must for those who love to safely throw themselves off high places.

The jump platform is attached beneath the Garry Bridge, which carries the A9 north to Inverness and beyond and offers 40 metres feet of jump height in truly stunning Highland surroundings.

This is also the site of the only black-out night jump in Europe, so if daytime bungee jumping is too tame for you, during the winter months it is possible to do the same jump in pitch-black surroundings.

It is known as canyoneering in the States. Standing under a waterfall is exhilarating in itself, sliding down a waterfall takes it to a whole new level.

There are several companies in Scotland offering instruction and trips with some leading adventures at several locations, depending on skill level.

You will get very wet and you will need that helmet! From mighty sea caves such as Smoo, to places with eerie connotations like the Bone Caves in Assynt, Scotland has an underground world to explore.

The longest caves are in the limestone rocks of Assynt and many of these should not be attempted by a beginner, preferably with someone who knows the caves.

An adrenaline fuelled combination of adventure swimming , climbing, canyoning, scrambling and leaping from high places into the sea, coasteering is basically just about going around a rocky coastline and having as much fun as possible.

Helmets, lifejackets and wetsuits are a must, as is an expert guide to keep you safe. Not your usual beach holiday!

If you are serious about testing your strength and skill in an array of traditional Scottish sports, get into training and sign up to take part in one of the many Highland Games that take place in Scotland every year.

However, this will take a serious time commitment and detailed planning, so it is lucky that there are alternatives you can enjoy by just turning up on the day.

Other options include foot or cycle races over various distances, or tossing a sack of hay over a bar with a pitchfork. The Queen always makes sure she attends the games at Braemar and Prince Charles often visits the Mey games, so you may have a Royal audience.

Scotland has some serious seas, whitewater rivers and conditions to challenge even the most experienced of kayakers.

As a bonus, there are many places to hire equipment, so you do not need to worry about being without a paddle.

There are places it might not be wise to venture, however, such as the famous Gulf of Corryvreckan or the extreme tidal power of the Pentland Firth.

Scotland has seas, Scotland has surf and Scotland has wind. Add these together and you have perfect kitesurfing conditions.

Many people bring their own gear and travel along the coast looking for ideal spots, which are in plentiful supply. Training courses are also available but be warned, you might end up hooked.

Such is the surge of adrenaline when you are whisked into the sky! Often dressed in fancy dress, participants should book their place in advance, as the event sells out each year.

Some recommended international non-proprietary names that are British approved names, not United States adopted names. The change to recommended international non-proprietary names is rational and we should not resist it chauvinistically.

However, there is one change that we should resist—the switch from adrenaline and noradrenaline British approved names to epinephrine and norepinephrine recommended international non-proprietary names.

Errors in medication, which are not uncommon, are more likely to occur in emergencies, when there is little time to attend to the nuances of nomenclature and other details, as anyone who has attended a cardiac arrest will testify.

Only nine of 30 anaesthesiologists managed a simulated cardiac arrest according to the US advanced cardiac life support guidelines Imagine looking desperately for adrenaline while treating a patient with a cardiac arrest, finding an ampoule labelled ephedrine, and mistaking it for epinephrine.

Since the European Community directivewas issued, 3 errors arising from confusion between ephedrine and epinephrine have been reported.

If the name adrenaline were used in only a few countries, the risk argument, although important locally, would not be particularly strong in an international context.

Although these data do not distinguish the extent to which preferences are those of editors rather than authors, I believe that they reflect a true worldwide preference for the name adrenaline—North America and Japan apart.

Not only is adrenaline the preferred technical term in most countries in the world, it is also the non-technical term for what people think of as the substance that surges through your body when you are on a high No one anywhere ever talks about a surge of epinephrine.

That the adrenal or suprarenal glands contained a substance with dramatic pharmacological effects was first shown in by George Oliver, a Harrogate physician, and Edward Schäfer, professor of physiology at University College London.

However, none of Abel's epinephrin extracts behaved physiologically like adrenaline does. Then, in , after having visited Abel, Jokichi Takamine prepared a pure extract of the active principle from the adrenal gland and patented it.

It was, in fact, an inactive benzoylated derivative. In the United Kingdom, however, where Adrenalin was not marketed, adrenaline became adopted as the generic name.

This was because Henry Dale, working in the Wellcome Physiological Research Laboratories, insisted in on using the name adrenaline in his publications, arguing that the term epinephrine had been used to describe extracts that were not physiologically the same as extracts called adrenaline.

Dale disputed this with Henry Wellcome, who preferred the name epinephrine. As a result of Dale's firm stand in the face of stiff opposition and Wellcome's final acceptance of his arguments, the name adrenaline or adrenalin became widely used.

As this brief account shows, there is no historical justification for the use of the term epinephrine.

Indeed, the evidence clearly shows that it is the wrong name to use. Other words use the stems adren o - or -enaline rather than epinephr o - or -ephrine.

The gland is the adrenal gland, not the epinephric gland, and the operation to remove it is adrenalectomy.

Other derivatives include adrenochrome, adrenocortical, adrenocorticotrop h ic, adrenogenital, and adrenolytic; none has a counterpart with the stem epinephro-.

Neurones with adrenaline and noradrenaline as neurotransmitters are called adrenergic and noradrenergic neurones; although the terms epinephrinergic and norepinephrinergic exist, their use is rare.

The receptors on which adrenaline and noradrenaline act are classified internationally as adrenoceptors The recommended international non-proprietary name for the noradrenaline derivative isopropylnoradrenaline is isoprenaline; its analogue 1- 3,5-dihydroxyphenyl isopropylaminoethanol is orciprenaline.

When the legislation is promulgated, the two dozen or so drugs that the Medicines Control Agency in Britain has identified as having a problematic recommended international non-proprietary name will be labelled with both names.

Dual labelling will pose some problems for pharmacists, 33 but they are not major ones, and we shall eventually get used to the new names, without one hopes serious errors.

We shall, if we must, even get used to epinephrine But the dangers in changing the name from adrenaline to epinephrine will far outweigh any other problems during the lengthy changeover period.

Use of the term epinephrine will increase the risk of serious errors in administering adrenaline in the many countries in which the term adrenaline is currently preferred.

There is, furthermore, clear historical and etymological evidence that epinephrine is an inappropriate name to use.

We should urge the World Health Organisation to change the recommended international non-proprietary name epinephrine to adrenaline and norepinephrine to noradrenaline.

If the existence of Adrenalin as a brand name in some countries militates against this, the European Union should allow adrenaline to be an exception to the rule that all names should be recommended international non-proprietary names.

Jokichi Takamine patented the pure extract of the active principle from the adrenal gland in Competing interests: JKA is a member of the British Pharmacopoeia Commission's nomenclature committee, but the views expressed here do not necessarily reflect those of other members of that committee or of the British Pharmacopoeia Commission itself.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List BMJ v. Jeffrey K Aronson , clinical reader.

Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Accepted Sep This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Their white epinephrin, my crimes Aldous Huxley, Island Assuming that you don't want to call it dihydroxyphenylmethylaminoethanol, which name should you use—adrenaline or epinephrine?

Summary points A European Commission directive requiring member states to use recommended international non-proprietary names for all drugs is soon to be implemented For most drug names there will be little or no change For around two dozen drugs the changes are more important; these will be dual labelled during the five year changeover period It is intended that adrenaline British approved name will be changed to epinephrine recommended international non-proprietary name The strong arguments for persuading the European Union to resist this particular change are based on usage, history, etymology, and, most importantly, risk of clinical errors.

Naming names All drugs have at least three different names. The practicalities Three cases arise in following this directive.

Opposition Some people in the United Kingdom will deplore these changes, 12 partly because they will regard them as a wholesale abandonment of British approved names in favour of American ones.

Table 1 Some recommended international non-proprietary names that are British approved names, not United States adopted names.

Open in a separate window. The usage argument If the name adrenaline were used in only a few countries, the risk argument, although important locally, would not be particularly strong in an international context.

The historical argument That the adrenal or suprarenal glands contained a substance with dramatic pharmacological effects was first shown in by George Oliver, a Harrogate physician, and Edward Schäfer, professor of physiology at University College London.

The etymological argument Other words use the stems adren o - or -enaline rather than epinephr o - or -ephrine.

Other derivatives include adrenochrome, adrenocortical, adrenocorticotrop h ic, adrenogenital, and adrenolytic; none has a counterpart with the stem epinephro- Neurones with adrenaline and noradrenaline as neurotransmitters are called adrenergic and noradrenergic neurones; although the terms epinephrinergic and norepinephrinergic exist, their use is rare.

Conclusion When the legislation is promulgated, the two dozen or so drugs that the Medicines Control Agency in Britain has identified as having a problematic recommended international non-proprietary name will be labelled with both names.

Henry Dale insisted in on using the name adrenaline in his publications. Footnotes Competing interests: JKA is a member of the British Pharmacopoeia Commission's nomenclature committee, but the views expressed here do not necessarily reflect those of other members of that committee or of the British Pharmacopoeia Commission itself.

References 1. Kopp-Kubbel S. Drug nomenclature. In: Wermuth CG, editor. The practice of medicinal chemistry.

London: Academic; Aronson JK. Confusion over similar drug names: problems and solutions. Drug Safety. Council Directive of 31 March Joint Formulary Committee.

British National Formulary. No Navarro FA. Naming of drugs. Medicines Control Agency. Chief Medical Officer.

CMO's update London: Department of Health; Medicines Commission. British Approved Names Supplement No 4. London: Stationery Office;

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Adrenalin FГјrth Video

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Bungee jumping with Highland Fling at Killiecrankie in Highland Perthshire is a must for those who love to safely throw themselves off high places.

The jump platform is attached beneath the Garry Bridge, which carries the A9 north to Inverness and beyond and offers 40 metres feet of jump height in truly stunning Highland surroundings.

This is also the site of the only black-out night jump in Europe, so if daytime bungee jumping is too tame for you, during the winter months it is possible to do the same jump in pitch-black surroundings.

It is known as canyoneering in the States. Standing under a waterfall is exhilarating in itself, sliding down a waterfall takes it to a whole new level.

There are several companies in Scotland offering instruction and trips with some leading adventures at several locations, depending on skill level.

You will get very wet and you will need that helmet! From mighty sea caves such as Smoo, to places with eerie connotations like the Bone Caves in Assynt, Scotland has an underground world to explore.

The longest caves are in the limestone rocks of Assynt and many of these should not be attempted by a beginner, preferably with someone who knows the caves.

An adrenaline fuelled combination of adventure swimming , climbing, canyoning, scrambling and leaping from high places into the sea, coasteering is basically just about going around a rocky coastline and having as much fun as possible.

Helmets, lifejackets and wetsuits are a must, as is an expert guide to keep you safe. Not your usual beach holiday! If you are serious about testing your strength and skill in an array of traditional Scottish sports, get into training and sign up to take part in one of the many Highland Games that take place in Scotland every year.

However, this will take a serious time commitment and detailed planning, so it is lucky that there are alternatives you can enjoy by just turning up on the day.

Other options include foot or cycle races over various distances, or tossing a sack of hay over a bar with a pitchfork. The Queen always makes sure she attends the games at Braemar and Prince Charles often visits the Mey games, so you may have a Royal audience.

Scotland has some serious seas, whitewater rivers and conditions to challenge even the most experienced of kayakers.

As a bonus, there are many places to hire equipment, so you do not need to worry about being without a paddle. There are places it might not be wise to venture, however, such as the famous Gulf of Corryvreckan or the extreme tidal power of the Pentland Firth.

Scotland has seas, Scotland has surf and Scotland has wind. Add these together and you have perfect kitesurfing conditions.

Many people bring their own gear and travel along the coast looking for ideal spots, which are in plentiful supply. Training courses are also available but be warned, you might end up hooked.

Such is the surge of adrenaline when you are whisked into the sky! Often dressed in fancy dress, participants should book their place in advance, as the event sells out each year.

Thousands of pounds are raised for charity and the spectacular backdrop of the Forth bridges just adds to the spectacle.

As you can imagine, all those mountains and glens come in very handy indeed for the sport of mountain biking.

If you like cross-country, then there are a wealth of forestry tracks or even old drove roads to explore — the driven cattle are long gone, but the tracks remain.

Bike-camping is becoming increasingly popular in Scotland, with the many perfect spots for wild camping.

The historical argument That the adrenal or suprarenal glands contained a substance with dramatic pharmacological effects was first shown in by George Oliver, a Harrogate physician, and Edward Schäfer, professor of physiology at University College London.

The etymological argument Other words use the stems adren o - or -enaline rather than epinephr o - or -ephrine. Other derivatives include adrenochrome, adrenocortical, adrenocorticotrop h ic, adrenogenital, and adrenolytic; none has a counterpart with the stem epinephro- Neurones with adrenaline and noradrenaline as neurotransmitters are called adrenergic and noradrenergic neurones; although the terms epinephrinergic and norepinephrinergic exist, their use is rare.

Conclusion When the legislation is promulgated, the two dozen or so drugs that the Medicines Control Agency in Britain has identified as having a problematic recommended international non-proprietary name will be labelled with both names.

Henry Dale insisted in on using the name adrenaline in his publications. Footnotes Competing interests: JKA is a member of the British Pharmacopoeia Commission's nomenclature committee, but the views expressed here do not necessarily reflect those of other members of that committee or of the British Pharmacopoeia Commission itself.

References 1. Kopp-Kubbel S. Drug nomenclature. In: Wermuth CG, editor. The practice of medicinal chemistry. London: Academic; Aronson JK.

Confusion over similar drug names: problems and solutions. Drug Safety. Council Directive of 31 March Joint Formulary Committee.

British National Formulary. No Navarro FA. Naming of drugs. Medicines Control Agency. Chief Medical Officer.

CMO's update London: Department of Health; Medicines Commission. British Approved Names Supplement No 4. London: Stationery Office; Labelling and leaflets.

Use of common name. George CF. Naming of drugs: pass the epinephrine please. Davies DM. Why change drug names?

Simulated cardiac arrests for monitoring quality of in-hospital resuscitation. Anesthesiologists' management of simulated critical incidents.

The response of anesthesia trainees to simulated critical incidents. Anesth Analg. Medical reliability of advanced prehospital cardiac life support.

Ann Emerg Med. Medication errors. We're getting INN trouble now. Pharm Pract May James RH. Do you report medication errors?

Hosp Pharm Pract July Oliver G, Schäfer EA. On the physiological action of extract of the suprarenal capsules.

J Physiol Lond ;i-iv. Abel JJ. On epinephrin, the active constituent of the suprarenal capsule and its compounds.

Proc Am Phys Soc. Hyrtl J. Onomatologia anatomica. Vienna: Wilhelm Braumüller; Takamine J. The isolation of the active principle of the suprarenal gland.

J Physiol Lond ;xxix-xxx. Davenport HW. Epinephrin e Physiologist. Rhodes James R. Henry Wellcome. London: Hodder and Stoughton; Tansey EM.

What's in a name? Henry Dale and adrenaline, Med Hist. Practitioner March Von Fürth O. Zur Kenntniss der brenzcatechinähnlichen Substanz der Nebennieren.

Z Physiol Chem. Fränkel S. Physiological action of the suprarenal capsules. J Chem Soc Abstracts. From Wien Med Blätter ;14, 15, Schäfer EA.

Present condition of our knowledge regarding the functions of the suprarenal capsules. Receptor and ion channel nomenclature supplement.

Trends Pharmacol Sci

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